Basic Terms of C Programming

Tokens, Semicolon, Comments, Identifiers, Keywords, White space

Basic Terms of C Programming

Tokens in C:

A C program consists of various tokens and a token is either a keyword , an identifier, a constant, a string literal, or a symbol.

for ex.: The following C statement consist of 5 tokens:

printf(“hello world!”);

The including tokens are:

  1.  printf
  2.  (
  3.  “hello world”
  4.  )
  5.  ;

Basic Terms of C Programming, Tokens,  Keywords, Semicolons, Computer tech study

Semicolon:

It is used to terminate statement.It indicate the end of 1 logical entity.

Comments:

Comments are like helping text in your C program and they are ignored by compiler.

/*my first program in C*/

Identifiers:

A C identifiers is a name used to identify a variable, function, or any other user-defined item. An identifiers start with a letter A to Z, a t z, an underscore and digits (0 to 9).

C does not allow punctuation characters, such as @,$ and % within identifiers. C is case-sensitive programming language.

example:- mohd, zara, abc, move_name, a_123, _temp, j, a23b9.

Keywords:

Basic Terms of C Programming, Tokens,  Keywords, Semicolons, Computer tech study

keywords are the reserved word may not be used as constants or variables or any other identifiers name. There are 32 keywords in C.

example:- auto    if     else if      for     do      else     case    break      while     switch    etc……

White space:

A line containing only white-space, possibly with a comment, is known as blank line and a compiler totally ignore it.

example:-

                       Basic Terms of C Programming, Tokens,  Keywords, Semicolons, Computer tech study

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C Introduction

C Introduction, Facts about C, How to compile and execute C program

C Programming

C is a general-purpose, high level languages that was originally developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system, at Bells lab.

  • C was originally first implemented on DEC PDP-11 compiler in 1972.
  • The UNIX OS, the C compiler and essentially all UNIX application programs has been written in C. C has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons. ( c programming )
    • Easy to learn.
    • Structured language.
    • It produces efficient programs.
    • It can handle low level activities.

Facts about C

  • C is invented to write an operating system called UNIX. ( Fact about c )
  • C is successor of B language which was introduced around the early 1970’s. ( Fact about c )
  • The language was formalized in 1988 by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). ( Fact about c )
  • The UNIX was totally written in C. ( Fact about c )

C Introduction, Facts about C, How to compile and execute C program, C ProgrammingHow to compile and execute C program

  • Open a text editor and add the C programming codes.
  • Save the file as c (as your choice but with .c extention).
  • Press Alt+F9 to compile the code.
  • Press Ctrl+F9 to run the code.

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Paste Special, Paste As Hyperlink, Change Style, Find, Goto, Format Painter

Paste Special, Paste As Hyperlink, Change Style, Format Painter, Font, Paragraph, Style, Change Style, Find, Goto, Select

FORMAT PAINTER

 You can use the format of painter on the write tab to apply text formatting and some basic graphics formatting such as borders and fills.

Paste Special, Paste As Hyperlink, Change Style, Format Painter, Font, Paragraph, Style, Change Style, Find, Goto, Select

PASTE SPECIAL

To create link b/w copied and paste matter through this option a link is created if we make any kind of changes in copied matter, them it will automatically show we in paste matter.

Paste Special, Paste As Hyperlink, Change Style, Format Painter, Font, Paragraph, Style, Change Style, Find, Goto, Select

PASTE AS HYPERLINK

Through this option we create link of a document with any other document. But before using this option. We have to save an file.

FONT

The options of font are to make formatting.

 E.g. – size, color, bolt, italic.

PARAGRAPH

 This option is used to give formatting on a paragraph.

E.g. – Alignment, border etc.

STYLE

There are predefined format style which we can supply to the selected text and we can define a new style also. By our own wish.

CHANGE STYLE

We can change the format of predefined system their color & font style also.

FIND

To find out the text we write in our document.

GOTO

To move on any selected line.

SELECT

To select all the matter or any formatting matter.

Video

 

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Title Bar, Menu Bar, Ribbon Bar

Title Bar, Menu Bar, Ribbon Bar, Office Button, Quick Access Toolbar

M.S WORD

M.S Word is the most widely used of all word-processing programs. A word processing program is a software program that includes that tool for entering & formatting text and graphics. M.S Word is a powerful word program that allows you to create using word are called document.

Title Bar, Menu Bar, Ribbon Bar, Office Button, Quick Access Toolbar

 “A Document has by default only”

TITLE BAR

 Title bar located at the very tap of the screen on the M.S word displays the name of the document you are currently using.

MENU BAR

The menu bar is directly below the title bar and it displays the menu of set option.

RIBBON BAR

The ribbon bar is divided the seven tabs by default and each tabs is a selection of good that show related items together.

OFFICE BUTTON

The M.S office button has replaced the menu in earlier version of word.

QUICK ACCESS TOOLBAR

The quick access bar is a customization toolbar which contains short cut for commonly used tools you have the ability to add and remove the tool button based on personal preference.

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Ms Word Introduction, Word for Windows, Word for Mac, Ms Word versions

Ms Word Inroduction, Word for Windows, Word for Mac, Subsequent versions, Ms Word versions

Ms Word Inroduction

Microsoft Word : is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems.

Subsequent versions:

were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running Classic Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1988), OS/2 (1989), Microsoft Windows (1989), SCO Unix (1994), and macOS (2001).

Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features.

Word for Windows :

Word for Windows is available stand-alone or as part of the Microsoft Office suite. Word contains rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities and is the most widely used word processing program on the market.

Word files are commonly used as the format for sending text documents via e-mail because almost every user with a computer can read a Word document by using the Word application, a Word viewer or a word processor that imports the Word format.

Ms Word Inroduction, Word for Windows, Word for Mac, Subsequent versions, Ms Word versions

Word 6 for Windows NT was the first 32-bit version of the product, released with Microsoft Office for Windows NT around the same time as Windows 95. It was a straightforward port of Word 6.0. Starting with Word 95, releases of Word were named after the year of its release, instead of its version number.

Word 2010 allows more customization of the Ribbon, adds a Backstage view for file management, has improved document navigation, allows creation and embedding of screenshots, and integrates with Word Web App.

Word for Mac :

 In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Its first version of Word, Word 98, was released with Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Document compatibility reached parity with Word 97,and it included features from Word 97 for Windows, including spell and grammar checking with squiggles. Users could choose the menus and keyboard shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac OS.
Ms Word Inroduction, Word for Windows, Word for Mac, Subsequent versions, Ms Word versions

Ms Word versions :

2001, released in 2000, added a few new features, including the Office Clipboard, which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items. It was the last version to run on classic Mac OS and, on Mac OS X, it could only run within the Classic Environment. Word X, released in 2001, was the first version to run natively on, and required, Mac OS X, and introduced non-contiguous text selection.

Word 2004 was released in May 2004. It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Other features, such as tracking changes, were made more similar with Office for Windows.

Word 2008, released on January 15, 2008, included a Ribbon-like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. It also included a new view focused on publishing layout, integrated bibliography management, and native support for the new Office Open XML format. It was the first version to run natively on Intel-based Macs.

Check Mobile Sim Packages: PackagesFinder

Word 2011, released in October 2010, replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows, and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Apps.

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About Busy, License, Registration, Launch

 ABOUT Busy , License , Registration , Launch

It is an accounting software which is used for small or medium Industry. Busy financial account  software  take

Care of your company  financial  accounting Business management and can serve as POS.

About Busy, License, Registration, Launch.

POS

 Use for Bill printing.

DEVELOPED

It was developed by “Busy InfoTech ltd”.

LICENSE

 Cost of license depend on the size of Industry.

Minimum = 7000/-

Maximum = 20000/-

REGISTRATION

 Registration of the software at ( Vajirpur Industry)

Area – New Delhi( Head Quarter)

LAUNCH

It was launch at “ IT AISA” 1994 Healed at

“ Pragati Maidaan “ ( New Delhi )

“ It is sold and supported all over the company more and more computed training institute also taking it  to teach “.

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Move, Copy

Move

The user may dictate the direction and length of a move of specified objects by indicating two points which define a vector between the objects.

( Shortcut  = M )

M                                                                       =      

Select objects                                                    =    

Specify base point or [Displacement]                =   10,5 ↵

Move, Copy, Move in Autocad, Copy in Autocad, Autocad

Specify second point or  <use first point as displacement>      =   10,0 ↵

Move, Copy, Move in Autocad, Copy in Autocad, Autocad

Copy

Copy does not affect the original group of objects, with the copied objects being completely independent of the original objects.

( Shortcut = CO / CP )

CO                                                                     =      

Select objects                                                    =    

Specify base point or [Displacement]                =   10,5 ↵

Move, Copy, Move in Autocad, Copy in Autocad, Autocad

Specify second point or  <use first point as displacement>      =   10,0 ↵

Move, Copy, Move in Autocad, Copy in Autocad, Autocad

 

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Autocad Introduction, Cad History, Cad Version

{Autocad Introduction, Autocad History, Autocad Version, Autocad Languages, Autocad Extensions}

Autocad  Introduction

 Auto cad  Introduction the term CAD (Computer Aided Design) applies to a wide range of programs that allow the user to created drawings, plans, and designs electronically. Auto cad Introduction.

AutoCAD is one such program and it main claim to fame is that it is relatively easy to use, it is very comprehensive in its ability to create 2D and some 3D drawings, and it is very popular. Autocad Introduction.

Seventy percent of the CAD users in the world use AutoCAD. AutoCAD is used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic designers, and many other professionals. It is supported by 750 training centers worldwide as of 1994. Autocad Introduction.

Autocad Introduction, Autocad History, Autocad Version, Autocad Languages, Autocad Extensions

Capabilities :

  • 2D line drawings
  • 3D constructions
  • Rendering
  • Part Assemblies

Autocad History :

Autocad History was derived from a program begun in 1977 and released in 1979 called Interact CAD, also referred to in early Autodesk documents as MicroCAD, which was written prior to Autodesk’s (then Marinchip Software Partners) formation by Autodesk cofounder Mike Riddle. Autocad History

The first version by Autodesk was demonstrated at the 1982 Comdex and released that December.  As Autodesk’s flagship product, by March 1986 AutoCAD had become the most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide.  Autocad History

The 2016 release marked the 30th major release of AutoCAD for Windows. The 2014 release marked the fourth consecutive year of AutoCAD for Mac. Autocad History

Autocad Version :

The native file format of AutoCAD is .dwg. This and, to a lesser extent, its interchange file format DXF, have become de facto, if proprietary, standards for CAD data interoperability, particularly for 2D drawing exchange.  AutoCAD has included support for .dwf, a format developed and promoted by Autodesk, for publishing CAD data.

Official Name

Version

Release

Date of release

Comments

AutoCAD Version 1.0 1.0 1 1982, December DWG R1.0 file format
AutoCAD Version 1.2 1.2 2 1983, April DWG R1.2 file format
AutoCAD Version 1.3 1.3 3 1983, August DWG R1.3 file format
AutoCAD Version 1.4 1.4 4 1983, October DWG R1.4 file format
AutoCAD Version 2.0 2.0 5 1984, October DWG R2.05 file format
AutoCAD Version 2.1 2.1 6 1985, May DWG R2.1 file format
AutoCAD Version 2.5 2.5 7 1986, June DWG R2.5 file format
AutoCAD Version 2.6 2.6 8 1987, April DWG R2.6 file format. Last version to run without a math co-processor.
AutoCAD Release 9 9.0 9 1987, September DWG R9 file format
AutoCAD Release 10 10.0 10 1988, October DWG R10 file format
AutoCAD Release 11 11.0 11 1990, October DWG R11 file format
AutoCAD Release 12 12.0 12 1992, June DWG R11/R12 file format. Last release for Apple Macintosh till 2010.
AutoCAD Release 13 13.0 13 1994, November DWG R13 file format. Last release for Unix, MS-DOS and Windows 3.11.
AutoCAD Release 14 14.0 14 1997, February DWG R14 file format
AutoCAD 2000 15.0 15 1999, March DWG 2000 file format
AutoCAD 2000i 15.1 16 2000, July  
AutoCAD 2002 15.2 17 2001, June  
AutoCAD 2004 16.0 18 2003, March DWG 2004 file format
AutoCAD 2005 16.1 19 2004, March  
AutoCAD 2006 16.2 20 2005, March Dynamic Block
AutoCAD 2007 17.0 21 2006, March DWG 2007 file format
AutoCAD 2008 17.1 22 2007, March Annotative Objects introduced. AutoCAD 2008 and higher (including AutoCAD LT) can directly import and underlay DGN V8 files.
AutoCAD 2009 17.2 23 2008, March Revisions to the user interface including the option of a tabbed ribbon
AutoCAD 2010 18.0 24 2009, March 24 DWG 2010 file format introduced. Parametrics introduced. Mesh 3D solid modeling introduced. PDF underlays. Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of AutoCAD 2010 and AutoCAD LT 2010 are compatible with and supported under Microsoft Windows 7.
AutoCAD 2011 18.1 25 2010, March 25 Surface Modeling, Surface Analysis and Object Transparency introduced. October 15, 2010[9] AutoCAD 2011 for Mac was released. Are compatible with and supported under Microsoft Windows 7
AutoCAD 2012 18.2 26 2011, March 22 Associative Array, Model Documentation, DGN editing. Support for complex line types in DGN files is improved in AutoCAD 2012.
AutoCAD 2013 19.0 27 2012, March 27 DWG 2013 file format
AutoCAD 2014 19.1 28 2013, March 26 File Tabs, Design Feed, Reality Capture, Autodesk Live Maps
AutoCAD 2015 20.0 29 2014, March 27 Line smoothing (anti-aliasing), Windows 8.1 support added, dropped Windows XP support (incl. compatibility mode)
AutoCAD 2016 20.1 30 2015, March 23 More comprehensive canvas, richer design context, and intelligent new tools such as Smart Dimensioning, Coordination Model, and Enhanced PDFs
AutoCAD 2017 21.0 31 2016, March 21 PDF import, Associative Center Marks and Centerlines, DirectX 11 graphics
AutoCAD 2018 22.0? 32? 2017, __/__ DWG 2018 file format

Autocad Languages :

Autocad Languaes and AutoCAD LT are available for English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Korean, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, Czech, Polish and Hungarian, Albanian (also through additional Language Packs).

Autocad Languages The extent of localization varies from full translation of the product to documentation only. The AutoCAD command set is localized as a part of the software localization.

Autocad Extensions :

Autocad Extensions AutoCAD supports a number of APIs for customization and automation. These include AutoLISP, Visual LISP, VBA, .NET and ObjectARX. ObjectARX is a C++ class library, which was also the base for:

  • products extending AutoCAD functionality to specific fields
  • creating products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D
  • third-party AutoCAD-based application

There are a large number of AutoCAD plugins (add-on applications) available on the application store Autodesk Exchange Apps  AutoCAD’s DXF, drawing exchange format, allows importing and exporting drawing information.

Vertical integration :

Autodesk has also developed a few vertical programs:

  • AutoCAD Architecture
  • AutoCAD Civil 3D
  • AutoCAD Electrical
  • AutoCAD ecscad
  • AutoCAD Map 3D
  • AutoCAD Mechanical
  • AutoCAD MEP
  • AutoCAD Structural Detailing
  • AutoCAD Utility Design
  • AutoCAD P&ID
  • AutoCAD Plant 3

Starting AutoCAD :

You can start AutoCAD by either double clicking on the program Icon on the desktop or by clicking on the program name in the Start menu. 

The program will start and after a minute or so should display a screen similar to the one shown below. The dialog box in the middle will aid you in getting started at either creating a new drawing or continuing your work on a drawing that is not finished. 

you are continuing work on a drawing, click on the “A” icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window and Open->Drawing. A “Select File” dialog box will open allowing you to select the drawing file you want to open.

The Initial Screen :

AutoCAD has a very versatile user interface that allows you to control the program in several different ways. At the top of the window is a row of menus. Clicking on the Home, Insert, or Annotate causes another selection of menus to appear.

This new selection of commands is frequently called a Ribbon or a Dashboard. You can operate the program by clicking on the icons in these menus. 

Another method of using the program is typing in the command names. This is frequently faster than using drop down menus for frequently used commands because you do not have to search for the correct menu or icon. You just type in the command name.

For the most part, we will use this approach in this series of tutorials. The commands that you type will appear at the bottom of the of the AutoCAD window.

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Autocad  Introduction